Viral Pleasure Arousal Emotional Control

via HBR

“We then scored the responses using the PAD emotional state model (similar to the VAD model) to study the emotional responses to each image.”


  • Valence is the positivity or negativity of an emotion. Happiness has a positive valence; fear has a negative valence.
  • Arousal ranges from excitement to relaxation. Anger is a high-arousal emotion; sadness is low-arousal.
  • Dominance ranges from submission to feeling in control. Fear is low-dominance; an emotion a person has more choice over, such as admiration, is high-dominance.